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Robert Burns is considered the national poet of Scotland. Born in in Alloway, he wrote lyrics and songs in Scots and in English. Robert Burns was born into a farming family and raised on a smallholding. He was also famous for his amours and his rebellion against orthodox religion and morality. It was watching his father being thus beaten down that helped to make Robert both a rebel against the social order of his day and a bitter satirist of all forms of religious and political thought that condoned or perpetuated inhumanity.
He received some formal schooling from a teacher as well as sporadically from other sources. He acquired a superficial reading knowledge of French and a bare smattering of Latin, and he read most of the important 18th-century English writers as well as ShakespeareMiltonand Dryden. Proud, restless, and full of a nameless ambition, the young Burns did his share of hard work on the farm. He took sides against the dominant extreme Calvinist wing of the church in Ayrshire and championed a local gentleman, Gavin Hamiltonwho had got into trouble with the kirk session a church court for Sabbath breaking.
But these were not spontaneous effusions by an almost illiterate peasant. Burns was a conscious craftsman; his entries in the commonplace book that he had begun in reveal that from the beginning he was interested in the technical problems of versification. Though he wrote poetry for his own amusement and that of his friends, Burns remained restless and dissatisfied.
He won the reputation of being a dangerous rebel against orthodox religion, and, when in he fell in love with Jean Armour, her father refused to allow her to marry Burns even though was on the way and under Scots law mutual consent followed by consummation constituted a legal marriage. Jean was persuaded by her father to go back on her promise. Robert, hurt and enraged, took up with another woman, Mary Campbell, who died soon after. On September 3 Jean bore him twins out of wedlock. Meanwhile, the farm was not prospering, and Burns, harassed by insoluble problems, thought of emigrating.
But he first wanted to show his country what he could do. In the midst of his troubles he went ahead with his plans for publishing a volume of his poems at the nearby We need a girl 25 Dumfries in 25 of Kilmarnock. Its success was immediate and overwhelming.
Simple country folk and sophisticated Edinburgh critics alike hailed it, and the upshot was that Burns set out for Edinburgh on November 27,to be lionized, patronizedand showered with well-meant but dangerous advice. The Kilmarnock volume was a remarkable mixture.
There were also a few Scots poems in which he was unable to sustain his inspiration or that are spoiled by a confused purpose. Burns selected his Kilmarnock poems with care: he was anxious to impress a genteel Edinburgh audience. The trouble was that he was only half acting. Edinburgh unsettled Burns, and, after a of amorous and other adventures there and several trips to other parts of Scotland, he settled in the summer of at a farm in Ellisland, Dumfriesshire. At Edinburgh, too, he arranged for a new and enlarged edition of his Poems, but little of ificance was added to the Kilmarnock selection.
He found farming at Ellisland difficult, though he was helped by Jean Armour, with whom he had been reconciled and whom he finally married in Burns spent the latter part of his life in We need a girl 25 Dumfries in 25 collecting and writing songs to provide words for traditional Scottish airs. He regarded his work as service to Scotland and quixotically refused payment. He was an admirable letter writer and a brilliant talker, and he could hold his own in any company. At the same time, he was still a struggling tenant farmer, and the attempt to keep himself going in two different social and intellectual capacities was wearing him down.
After trying for a long time, he finally obtained a post in the excise service in and moved to Dumfries inwhere he lived until his death. His life at Dumfries was active. The outbreak of the French Revolution excited him, and some indiscreet outbursts nearly lost him his job, but his reputation as a good exciseman and a politic but humiliating recantation saved him. Robert Burns. Fast Facts. Additional Info. Print print Print.
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Fast Facts Quotes. See all media. Born: January 25, Alloway Scotland Show more Died: July 21, Dumfries Scotland Show more Role In: Scottish Enlightenment Show more. Top Questions. Full Article. Get a Britannica Premium subscription and gain access to exclusive content. Subscribe Now. Load Next .We need a girl 25 Dumfries in 25
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