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Thank you for visiting nature. You are using a browser version with limited support for CSS. To obtain the best experience, we recommend you use a more up to date browser or turn off compatibility mode Girls what like in boys Internet Explorer. Violence against women is a reality that is still present in Europe and a serious public health threat worldwide.
Fortunately, investment is being made to raise awarness at the national and EU levels and among diverse publics. However, more research is needed in order to better explain its underlying factors, and thus identify effective actions that could contribute to preventing young girls and women from becoming victims.
Our findings suggest that in the different European secondary schools studied, a similar pattern of attraction is recognized by female participants: although non-violent boys are highly preferred to those with a violent profile, we observed that boys with violent attitudes and behaviours are mostly preferred for hooking up, and boys with non-violent traits are mostly preferred for stable relationships.
The report constituted the first global systematic review and synthesis of scientific data on two forms of violence against women: violence Girls what like in boys an intimate partner intimate partner violence and sexual violence by someone other than a partner. Although resources have been invested in programmes and campaigns by European institutions, and legislation Girls what like in boys been passed in the EU in order to pressure member states to act upon the issue of gender violence, figures reveal that there has been little change in practice. This report gathered data from the 28 European member states on experiences of physical, sexual and psychological violence, including intimate partner violence domestic violence and sexual harassment.
The FRA declared that violence and abuse are affecting the lives of European women but that this situation is being systematically under-reported to the authorities. Data collected in the survey indicates that an estimated 13 million women in the EU had experienced physical violence in the course of 12 months before the survey interviews, and an estimated 3.
Regarding non-partner violence, one in five women had experienced physical violence committed by someone other than their partner since the age of As observed, violence against women is a reality that is still present in Europe and a serious public health threat worldwide, which fortunately is being addressed more and more with the aim of tackling its multiple manifestations, from the domestic sphere to the trafficking of human beings, considering its gendered dimension Limoncelli, However, more research is needed in order to inform two central socio-legal debates related to the prevention and tackling of gender violence: on the one hand, how to unveil effective actions that prevent girls and young women from falling in the coercive dominant discourse that fosters attraction towards violence Puigvert, ; Racionero-Plaza et al.
In this sense, an in-depth analysis of this complex problem should help us to better recognize which of the risk factors already identified in the literature are the ones which are more prominent in perpetuating the cycle of the violent victimization of youth.
Research on risk factors related to gender violence conducted from a preventive socialization approach has identified that there is a coercive dominant discourse in which people with violent attitudes and behaviours are socially portrayed as attractive and exciting.
Accordingly, due to imbalanced power Girls what like in boys between men and women, this coercive dominant discourse e. Different qualitative investigations have analysed the impact of this coercive dominant discourse. However, other communicative acts, based on dialogic interactions, contribute to better recognizing new masculinitieswhich are represented by boys who reject violence while maintaining desirability.
In turn, girls who fall for the mirage of upward mobility more easily identify when other girls go through this mirage than when it affects themselves Puigvert, — In not using the language which adolescents and the media tend to use, the campaigns do not challenge the dominant model of socialization and the association between violence and attraction that this imposes Flecha and Girls what like in boys, Building upon the findings of research studies on the preventive socialization approach, three different masculinity models have been recognized and accordingly theorized Flecha et al.
These are considered as ideal types in a Weberian way, identified in order for us to be able to develop social theory. In this second model, the capacity to increase attraction and be desired has not yet been transformed, so they are not an alternative to gender violence, as they do not challenge the values embodied by the DTM. Radically opposed to OTM and DTM are the New Alternative Masculinitiesa model situated within the realm of language of desire, represented by men who oppose violent attitudes and behaviours while also being considered sexy.
Research in the field of psychology has also studied how, under certain conditions, aggressive men and those men considered more masculine are preferred to other men. Giebel and colleagues conducted a study in which they analysed whether appetitive aggression in men serves as an additional al for a favoured partner choice. Accordingly, their findings reveal that women preferred a soldier higher in appetitive aggression as a short-term mate but not as a partner in a long-term relationship.
In another research study, Giebel et al. The authors observed that those individuals who declared wanting to avoid boredom and looked for exciting social activities have a stronger desire for a dominant partner. According to this study, those perceived as dominant are considered more interesting, attractive and appealing for people with higher boredom susceptibility.
Additionally, people who like new and exciting social activities such as parties, social drinking and casual sex also prefer a dominant partner. In a similar vein to this investigation, Houser et al. Popular and overtly aggressive girls were seen as desirable dating partners by their male peers, and relational aggression was linked with dating popularity for both boys and girls. Dating violence perpetration and victimization is of major relevance, especially considering the influence that it may have on future intimate partner violence and, as highlighted by Theobald and colleaguesthe burden of coping with violence from one generation to the next p.
Within the field of criminology, many researchers are advancing knowledge about the risk factors that may lead to dating violence. In this regard, Rebellon and Manasse investigated the association between delinquency and other risk-taking behaviours with dating behaviour among adolescents, showing that delinquency serves to increase romantic involvement. According to theirrisk-taking adolescents attract the romantic interest of others, and such attention may provide indirect reinforcement for delinquency among both male and female adolescents.
In a different study about risk factors for first time sexual assault, Bramsen et al. Authors identified two elements that predicted Girls what like in boys adolescent peer-on-peer sexual victimization APSV : first, the of sexual partners, and second, sexual risk behaviours that place girls in close association or proximity to potential offenders. At Girls what like in boys core of identifying these violent situations lies the idea suggested by some authors, that victimization and revictimization are either caused by an impaired ability to recognize potentially threatening situations Bramsen et al.
In this line, it has also been suggested that among those adolescents with high acceptance of dating aggression, peer aggression and delinquency ificantly predicted recurrent aggression in a new relationship Williams et al. Research has also found that some adolescents tend to maintain violent dating relationships that become chronic, and some teens engage in multiple violent relationships in which the severity of violence increases from the first to subsequent relationships Burke Draucker et al. There is evidence that intimate partner violence and violence in hook-ups is widespread among adolescents and young adults and le to a life trajectory that includes violence, either as victims or perpetrators Bramsen et al.
As mentioned above, peer influences and attitudes towards violence e. All in all, the present article draws, on the one hand, on classic works of feminist authors such as Mary Wollstonecraft who in the 18th century, advocated for the rights of women to receive the education needed to realize their full faculties and rights on equal footing with men. On the other hand, it draws on the large amount of current literature on associated risk factors for violence perpetration and victimization.
Despite reporting data on both violent and non-violent boys, the analysis is mostly focused on the scenarios involving boys with violent behaviours, as these are the ones at the very centre of the coercive socialization that le to the link between attraction and violence.
Unveiling the mechanisms behind this coercive discourse and how it operates in a different way in hook-ups and in stable relationships will help to contribute to prevention strategies of gender violence as well as to untangle how violence acts as an underlying force within the current patriarchal system, perpetuating the coercive model of socialization.
This quasi-experimental exploratory case study was conducted in four secondary schools located in four European countries: Cyprus, Spain, Finland and the UK. Schools where the study was carried out were selected according to an intentional sample, following two criteria: a partnership schools, namely: in each of the countries, schools with which the research team have established collaboration in research investigations about the research line on preventive socialization of gender violence; b diversity in Girls what like in boys to geographical location, urban vs rural condition, socioeconomic status, culture, ethnicity and religion.
Regarding case study participants, the research team agreed with the head teacher of each school on the possibility for all girls from 13 to 16 years old to be part of the study. The school centre assessed and decided whether it would be better for any one student to not be included as a participant and provided the necessary information to justify the decision. Thus, the final female student participants in each case study were those who, after hearing an in-depth explanation of the investigation and its objectives and following strict ethical procedures due to the sensitiveness of the topic, decided to take part in it.
Eventually, a total of female teenagers participated in the study, ranging from 13 to 16 years old. From the UK sample of students, 8 out of the 15 participants were reached not through a secondary school although they were secondary school students but through an NGO working with ethnic minorities groups which collaborated with the research coordinating team. The same procedure for female participants selections was followed. The quasi-experimental and Girls what like in boys nature of the case study explains that presented in this specific research are not generalizable to different realities than the included ones.
Although caution should be paid with respect to the cases of the UK and Cyprus, given their small of respondents, a key methodological interest of this study lies in its replicability in diverse countries.
Future similar research can replicate the quasi-experiment with larger samples, testing the replicability of patterns identified while unveiling newer trends. This type of approach has been largely used in gender studies Sleed et al.
investigations suggest that EVM has high levels of confidence regarding internal validity and that they allow study participants to explore their experiences regarding sensitive matters on their own terms from a safer and less threatening perspective. Hence, EVM is a methodological strategy that allows participants to reach greater levels of honesty and reduce the risk of social desirability Barter and Renold, For instance, asking the subjects to share stories and memories about their friends rather than about themselves or doing both. For the study we are reporting here, we worked with the vignettes set C.
Each set of Vignette-Test consisted of four different vignettes. Each one portrayed a boy with a brief description, mainly in terms of his attractiveness and his behaviour and attitudes regarding women. Two of the vignettes boy 1 and boy 3 each portrayed a picture of a boy accompanied by a brief narrative which included some sentences on behaviours and attitudes considered to be violence against women by international scientific literature Banyard et al.
The other two vignettes also portrayed two different Girls what like in boys accompanied with a description that included non-sexist behaviours boy 2 and boy 4. Boy 1. He is a funny bastard. He is not as sensible and good as his friends are, but his strong temper makes him somebody interesting to be discovered. Lots have tried to. He is someone to be rescued. He has a difficult personality. Boy 3. You want not to like him but his Girls what like in boys eyes will hook you. Despite the fact that he has touched them without consent, they believe they can change him. His personality is scary, but it will make you drool.
Boy 2. He is the boy every girl dreams to be with for the rest of her life; well-mannered, courteous, respectful of everyone. He knows how to treat girls as queens. He cares and is attentive. Boy 4. Open and friendly, he makes girls feel comfortable. He is the good-hearted guy that mothers love. Female students who participated in the study passed through the international ethical standard process in research that ensured that their anonymity will be maintained throughout all of the investigation process and afterward.
Each participant was provided with a Consent Form and Information Sheet elaborated with language adapted to this particular age range. They had the necessary time to read it carefully, and when they agreed, they were asked to it. Furthermore, Consent forms for the parents or tutors were distributed together with specific information sheets. Beyond the distribution of the Consent forms for parentsthe research team offered the possibility of carrying out an information meeting in the school for the parents Girls what like in boys the study participants. The analysis was conducted considering the secondary schools in each country.
For the case of the UK and in order to simplify the analysis, the two high schools were grouped into one cases were added.
A descriptive analysis was done based on the six questions approached in the aforementioned tests. We used a T-test paired sample with the aggregated data in order to analyse if there was any ificant difference between boy 1, boy 2, boy 3 and boy 4 when the participants answered that either their friends or other girls they know would like to hook up or establish a relationship with one of them. After conducting the survey, we used a Cronbach test Girls what like in boys check the reliability of the data collected. In what follows, we present the according to the secondary schools of each country and the two possible types of relationships hook-up and stable relationship disaggregated by subjects asked: themselvestheir friendsand other girls.
It is notable in this first scenario that, in many cases, there are up to 20 points of difference between the hook-up more preferredand the situation of a stable relationship less preferred for the same boy for See Table 1. An initial observation for the three situations presented in the vignette survey is that non-violent boys are preferred, in general terms, to a higher extent than those with violent traits.
This is very positive as a general overview. However, in order to better understand potential situations of gender violence victimization, other trends which emerged in the need to be carefully looked into and interpreted. First, female participants respond that the two boys described with violent behaviours and attitudes are chosen to a higher extent for hook-ups rather than for establishing stable relationships.
This trend is clearly observed for the case of the secondary school from Finland and Spain for both boys described with violent traits boy 1 and boy 3. In the case of UK and Cypriot schools, the observed are slightly different as an even pattern is not appreciated. In the UK, boy 1 is mostly preferred for Girls what like in boys, and boy 3 is equally preferred for hook-ups and stable relationships.
In the case of Cyprus, boy 1 and boy 3 are still much preferred for hooking up but not in all situations. In this table, for every violent boy, we count the of participants who declare they prefer that boy for a hooking up rather than for a stable relationship. In turn, for every non-violent boy, we also count the of participants that prefer them but for a stable relationship.
When Girls what like in boys at the data and paying attention to the answers about the preferences for boys with non-violent attitudes and behaviours boy 2 and boy 4it is clear they are, in most situations, largely preferred for stable relationships rather than for hook-ups. Again, this is clearly observed in the cases of Finland, Spain, and Cyprus, and of uneven frequency in the case of the UK when looking at boy 4.Girls what like in boys
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Girls’ perceptions of boys with violent attitudes and behaviours, and of sexual attraction